Accessibility Tools

Total Ankle Replacement

Total Ankle Replacement sp

Total Ankle Replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments. The goal of total ankle replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your ankle joint.

Achilles Tendon Repair

Achilles Tendon Repair sp

The Achilles tendon is often injured during sports activities, resulting in an inflammatory condition called tendonitis, which is characterized by swelling and pain. In some cases, severe injury results in a tear or rupture of the Achilles tendon, requiring immediate medical attention.

Ankle Arthrodesis

Ankle Arthrodesis sp

Ankle arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the ankle joint. The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, talus, and the fibula bones.The goal of ankle arthrodesis is to relieve pain in the affected joint. This is achieved by surgically eliminating the joint.

Foot Reconstruction

Foot Reconstruction sp

Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness. Ideally, any foot surgery for reconstruction is done to improve the appearance and function of the foot so that you can maintain your quality of life.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Ankle Arthroscopy sp

Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions. The camera projects an image of the inside of the joint onto a large monitor, allowing your surgeon to look for any damage, assess the type of injury and repair the problem.

Ankle Fusion

Ankle Fusion sp

Ankle fusion, also known as ankle arthrodesis, is a surgical procedure commonly employed for the treatment of ankle arthritis in which the joint cartilage is severely damaged. The procedure involves fusion of the bones that form the ankle joint into one piece, which eliminates joint motion and relieves pain originating from the arthritic joint.

Ankle Dislocation

Ankle Dislocation

Ankle dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones of the lower leg called the fibula and tibia get separated from the talus or ankle bone. This can cause serious damage to the nerves and ligaments surrounding the ankle, leading to a decline in strength and overall health of the leg.

Ankle Pain

Ankle Pain sp

Ankle pain refers to any form of pain or discomfort affecting the ankle joint. Your ankles are more prone to injury and pain since they bear the weight of your entire body.

Ankle Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ankle Rheumatoid Arthritis sp

Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune disease in which the body’s immune system (the body’s way of fighting infection) attacks its own healthy joints, tissues, and organs. It can cause pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis affects mostly joints of the hands and feet and tends to be symmetrical.

Ankle Sprain

Ankle Sprain sp

A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint, or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump. Most commonly, it occurs when you participate in sports, or jump or run on a surface that is irregular.

Ankle Instability Surgery

Ankle Instability sp

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by the recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. Instability is generally noticed during movement of the ankle joint, but can also occur while standing.

Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

Ankle Ligament Reconstruction sp

Ankle ligament reconstruction may be performed arthroscopically under general anesthesia. Your surgeon will make small incisions in your ankle. A tiny camera and a few special instruments are inserted through the incisions to repair and strengthen the ligaments. Stretched or torn ligaments will be shortened and stitched as needed. Sometimes, a weakened ligament is reconstructed with a section of tendon derived from the foot and around the ankle.

Big Toe Motion Preservation Surgery

Big Toe Motion Preservation Surgery sp

Big toe motion preservation surgery is a procedure employed for the treatment of a stiff big toe.A stiff big toe, also called hallux rigidus, is a form of degenerative arthritis affecting the joint where the big toe (hallux) attaches to the foot. The toe typically becomes stiff at the base and is sometimes called a “frozen joint”.

Ankle Joint Replacement

Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery sp

Ankle joint replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments. The goal of ankle joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your ankle joint.

Bunionette Surgery

Bunionette Surgery sp

A bunionette, commonly known as a tailor’s bunion, is a bony lump on the outside of the base of the little toe. This is generally caused by the shift or enlargement of the joint connecting the fifth metatarsal bone on the outside of the foot to the base of the little toe. In some cases, this may be caused by the formation of a bone spur along the fifth metatarsal bone head.

Cavus Foot Reconstruction

Cavus Foot Reconstruction sp

Cavus foot reconstruction is a deformity correction surgery to treat cavus foot which is also called pes cavus or high arches. Cavus foot occurs when the arch on the bottom of the foot that runs from the toes to the heel is arched more than normal. This causes pain and instability in the foot while walking, standing, and running. Cavus foot reconstruction aims to correct the bone shape, its malalignment, muscle imbalance, and foot and ankle instability.

Complex Foot and Ankle Surgeries

Complex Foot and Ankle Surgeries sp

Complex foot and ankle surgeries are procedures employed to treat foot and ankle structures with deformities, injuries, structural issues, and damage from diseases like diabetes or arthritis.

Flatfoot Reconstruction

Flatfoot Reconstruction sp

The primary objectives of flatfoot reconstruction are reduction of pain and restoration of function and appearance. This can greatly benefit your medical and aesthetic needs. The surgery to be performed depends on several factors such as your age, severity, and duration of the symptoms.

Charcot Reconstruction

Charcot Reconstruction sp

Charcot foot and ankle is a condition characterized by gradual weakening of the bones, joints and soft tissues, and loss of sensation in the foot and ankle. It is caused by nerve damage (neuropathy) in the foot and ankle or due to diabetes.

Foot and Ankle Cartilage Repair

Foot and Ankle Cartilage Repair sp

Foot and ankle cartilage repair is a surgical procedure to restore the damaged cartilage in the foot and ankle joint. Cartilage repair can be performed either through a single long incision called the open approach or via a minimally invasive approach called arthroscopy. Two or more small incisions are made in the foot and ankle joint and an arthroscope is made inserted to aid in the surgical repair.

Minimally Invasive Bunion Surgery

Minimally Invasive Bunion Surgery sp

Minimally invasive bunion surgery, also known as keyhole bunion surgery, is a procedure to treat a foot condition called a bunion or hallux valgus. During minimally invasive bunion surgery, a few small incisions are made to access the bone around the bunion, as opposed to a much larger incision made during an open bunion surgery that cuts across layers of tissue around the bone, causing more postoperative pain, a larger scar, and damage to the surrounding soft tissues.

Cyst Removal

Cyst Removal sp

A cyst is a small irregular, non-cancerous sac-like structure filled with fluid or pus. It may be found in any part of the body including the foot. Cysts are caused due to infection, trauma, or blocked oil glands. They usually grow slowly and have a smooth surface. Cysts can be of varying sizes and appear as a bump on your skin or feel like a lump growing under the skin.

Foot Injections

Foot Injections sp

Foot injections are steroids that are injected into your foot to relieve pain and inflammation. Cortisol is a hormone that is produced in the human body and functions to reduce stress and inflammation.

Heel Surgery

Heel Surgery sp

Heel surgery is a procedure performed to treat heel pain and loss of motion that is caused due to injury, inflammation, and irritation of the foot muscles, bones, or the connective tissue attached to the heel. It is usually the last line of treatment when non-surgical therapies such as anti-inflammatory medications, orthotics, physical therapy, and injections fail to relieve painful symptoms.

Metatarsal Surgery

Metatarsal Surgery sp

Metatarsal surgery is a surgical procedure performed on the metatarsal bones, the long bones in the feet that connect to the toe bones. It is usually performed to correct a bunion deformity and is mainly done on the first metatarsal bone behind the big toe. Surgery on the second to fifth metatarsal bones is usually performed to treat callouses or ulcers at the bottom of the foot.

Plantar Fascia Release

Plantar Fascia Release sp

Plantar fascia release is a surgical procedure to treat moderate to severe plantar fasciitis, in which your surgeon releases or removes the diseased section of the plantar fascia tissue to relieve pain and inflammation in the foot.

Posterior Tibialis Tendon Repair

Posterior Tibialis Tendon Repair sp

Posterior tibialis tendon repair is a surgery performed to repair an injured or torn posterior tibialis tendon. The tear may occur as a result of a fall or break/dislocation of the ankle. The surgery may also be performed for chronic inflammation of the posterior tibialis tendon due to overuse.

External Fixation for Foot and Ankle Trauma

External Fixation for Foot and Ankle Trauma sp

External fixation for foot and ankle trauma is a surgical method that uses external fixators to immobilize broken bones of the foot and ankle to enable them to heal properly. Foot and ankle trauma refers to injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise, or other physical activity. They can include sprains, strains, fractures, and dislocations.

Revision Foot and Ankle Surgery

Revision Foot and Ankle Surgery sp

Revision foot and ankle surgery is indicated when there are complications following initial surgery including persistent pain and disability, deformity, or need for additional stability.

Total Talus Replacement

Total Talus Replacement sp

Total talus replacement is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or injured talus bone of the ankle joint is removed and replaced with a prosthetic implant.

Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation System (OATS) of the Ankle

Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation System (OATS) of the Ankle sp

Osteochondral injuries are most often caused by trauma to the ankle joint, such as with ankle sprains. Some cases may not have any previous history of ankle injury and may be caused by local osteonecrosis or a metabolic defect.

Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis

Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis sp

Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis is a surgical procedure to treat severe foot and ankle arthritis that has not responded to non-operative treatments. It is performed using an arthroscope and involves fusion of bones that make up your ankle joint into one unit.

Tendon Transfer

Tendon Transfer sp

Tendon transfer surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. An incision is made along the foot and the damaged tendon is exposed and removed. A healthy tendon is identified, cut at its normal insertion, rerouted through the soft tissues and bones, and then sutured to another bone in the foot.

Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction

Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction sp

Foot and Ankle deformity correction is the repair of the abnormality by restoring the normal alignment of the bones in the foot & ankle, surgically or non-surgically.


Bunion Prevention

Bunion Prevention sp

A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is a condition characterized by a bony extension that develops at the base of the big toe due to the misalignment of the metatarsal bones or by the formation of additional bone in this area. Inflammation occurs in the enlarged joint which may be accompanied by progressively increasing tenderness and pain.

Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation

Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation sp

The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. A foot injury or foot surgery may leave you immobile for a period of time. After any injury or surgery to your foot, a rehabilitation program will help you get back to your daily activities quicker.

Toe Exercises

Toe Exercises sp

Toe exercises improve foot flexibility and strength and can help alleviate muscle soreness caused by the stress exerted on the foot each day. Healthy toes also improve your balance and reduce your risk of falls.

Foot Orthotics

Foot Orthotics sp

Foot orthotics also known as orthoses are specially designed supportive shoe inserts worn against the foot to relieve pain, provide protection, and treat foot or ankle deformities. They are available in multiple sizes and shapes to deliver prescription-based foot correction or may be custom-made with the help of a plaster cast or computer-aided 3D imaging of the foot.

Non-Surgical Treatment for Foot and Ankle Pain

Non-Surgical Treatment for Foot and Ankle Pain sp

Foot pain may arise due to advanced age, being overweight, excessive sports activities or walking, foot injury or trauma, inborn foot deformities, poorly fitted shoes, and from standing on your feet for a long duration.

Morton's Neuroma

Morton's Neuroma sp

Morton’s neuroma refers to a nerve injury that occurs between the toes, usually the third and fourth toes. This causes pain and thickening of the nerve tissue.


Sesamoiditis sp

Sesamoids are two small, pea-shaped bones located in the ball beneath the big toe joint at the bottom of the foot. Sesamoid bones are connected to muscles and other bones by tendons that envelop these bones. Sesamoids help the big toe move normally and absorb the weight placed on the ball.


Hammertoe sp

A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe is bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer. The bent portion may rub against the shoe causing pain, irritation and develop corns.

Heel Pain

Heel Pain sp

Heel pain is a common symptom of excessive strain placed on the structures that form the heel.Heel pain can be caused by obesity, abnormal walking style, standing or walking or running on hard surfaces and wearing ill-fitting shoes.

Mallet Toe

Mallet Toe sp

Mallet toe is a deformity where the toe abnormally bends downward, resembling a hammer or mallet. The bones at the tip of the toe are connected by the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Muscle imbalance or damage to the tendons or ligaments of the DIP causes contraction and deformity. Mallet toe can be either flexible, where the joint is still movable, or rigid, where the deformity is fixed.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction sp

The posterior tibial tendon passes through the ankle to attach the calf muscle with the bones of the midfoot. It provides stability to the arch and supports the foot while walking. Inflammation or a tear of this tendon as a result of injury may cause dysfunction, leading to pain and the development of a flatfoot.

Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles Tendinitis sp

The Achilles tendon is a tough band of fibrous tissue that runs down the back of your lower leg and connects your calf muscle to your heel bone. The tendon is used when you walk, climb, jump, run and stand on your tip toes.

Peroneal Tendonitis

Peroneal Tendonitis sp

Peroneal tendonitis is inflammation of the peroneal tendons in the ankle due to an acute or overuse injury. It is common in those participating in sports involving repeated ankle movement such as running.

Midfoot Arthritis

Midfoot Arthritis sp

Midfoot arthritis is pain and inflammation of the midfoot. It occurs due to damage of cartilage or tissues around the joints. The damage may occur due to injury, aging or autoimmunity. The foot bones are the phalanges, the metaphalanges, and the tarsal bones.

Hallux Rigiditis

Hallux Rigiditis sp

Hallux Rigiditis is a form of degenerative arthritis at the metatarsophalangeal or MTP joint where the base of your big toe attaches to the foot. Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint.

Osteochondral Injuries of the Ankle

Osteochondral Injuries of the Ankle sp

Osteochondral injuries are most often caused by trauma to the ankle joint, such as with ankle sprains. Some cases may not have any previous history of ankle injury and may be caused by local osteonecrosis or a metabolic defect.

Heel Fractures

Heel Fractures sp

A fracture of the heel bone occurs most commonly due to a traumatic event such as falling from a height, twisting injuries, motor vehicle accidents and ankle sprains.

Foot and Ankle Osteotomy

Foot and Ankle Osteotomy sp

Foot and ankle osteotomy is a surgery performed to remove parts of a bone in your foot or ankle that might be causing pain or limiting your mobility. The surgery helps relieve pressure on the foot and ankle caused by the bone deformity or injury.