Achilles Tendon Bursitis
Achilles tendon bursitis or retrocalcaneal bursitis is a condition that commonly occurs in athletes. It is a painful condition caused by the swelling of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac that is located at the back of the heel under the Achilles tendon. This retrocalcaneal bursa contains a lubricating fluid that acts as a cushion to reduce friction between muscle and bones.
Achilles Tendon Rupture
The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping. Recreational sports that may cause Achilles rupture include tennis, football, basketball, and gymnastics.
An ankle fracture is a painful condition where there is a break in one or more bones forming the ankle joint. The ankle joint is stabilized by different ligaments and other soft tissues, which may also be injured during an ankle fracture.
The ankle is made up of many bones, muscles, and ligaments that aid in the smooth movement of the foot. Ankle impingement is the painful limitation of movement of the ankle due to an abnormality in the soft tissue or bone. Impingement can occur in the ankle's front (anterior ankle impingement) or back (posterior ankle impingement).
The joints of the ankle are held in place and stabilized by strong bands of tissue called ligaments. Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains, which are injuries to the ligaments. Ankle instability is generally noticed when you move your ankle joint but can also occur while standing.
Ankle Ligament Injury
An ankle ligament injury, also known as an ankle sprain, can be caused by a sudden twisting movement of the foot during any athletic event or during daily activities. When stretched beyond its limit, the ligament may partially or completely tear. The injury can range from mild to severe, depending on the condition of the injured ligament and the number of ligaments involved.
Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet where the arch that runs along the sole of the foot collapses to the ground or is not formed at all. Flatfoot is normal in the first few years of life as the arch of the foot usually develops between the age of 3 and 5 years.
A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is a bony protuberance that appears on the outer surface of the big toe when it angles toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.
Bunionette also referred to as a tailor’s bunion is a bony lump that grows on the outside of the foot at the base of your little toe. The deformity got its name as q tailor’s bunion when tailors once sat with their legs crossed all day, with the outside edge of their feet rubbing on the ground. This constant rubbing gave rise to a painful bump at the base of their little toe. A bunionette differs from a bunion which typically develops on the inside of the foot below the big toe.
Cavus Foot Deformity
Cavus foot also referred to as a high arch, is a condition in which the arch on the bottom of the foot that runs from the toes to the heel is arched more than normal. Because of this, excessive weight falls on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing, causing pain and instability. Children with neurological disorders or other conditions such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, poliomyelitis, and muscular dystrophy are more likely to develop Cavus foot. It may sometimes occur as an inherited abnormality.
Foot and Ankle Arthritis
Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint. This degeneration of the cartilages leads to painful rubbing of the bones, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, resulting in restricted movements.
Foot and Ankle Trauma
Foot and ankle trauma refers to injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise or any other physical activity. Trauma may be a result of accidents, poor training practices or use of improper gear. Injuries may also be caused when an individual is not medically fit or because of insufficient warm-up and stretching exercises.
Foot fracture is a condition where there are small cracks in the bones. It occurs because of a fall, motor vehicle accident, dropping a heavy object on your foot or from overuse with sports. The trauma or repeated stress on the foot often results in pain, swelling, deformity and inability to bear weight.
Stress Fractures of Foot and Ankle
A stress fracture is described as a small crack in the bone which occurs from an overuse injury of a bone. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked or stressed, they are unable to absorb the stress and when this happens the muscles transfer the stress to the bone which results in stress fracture.
Plantar fasciitis refers to the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that is present at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toes and forms the arch of your foot.
Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors on the foot. It is a common problem experienced by young athletes involved in various activities such as running and jumping. Normally, foot pain can be treated with home treatments and may take time to heal. However, in cases of severe injury, adequate evaluation and treatment are required.
Forefoot pain, also referred to as metatarsalgia, is a type of pain that occurs in the ball of the foot (along the ends of the metatarsal bones). Generally, forefoot pain is associated with aging. Individuals with metatarsalgia experience pain of varied intensities and discomfort and find it difficult to perform activities such as walking, running and playing.